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In a two-part series, Mike Russell explores the fascinating development, recent reconstruction and current tramway operations in the eastern half of this central European nation.

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As a nation Romania is a relatively recent formation, created in the midth Century from the former provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia that were under Turkish suzerainty. Discord arising from this settlement manifested itself immediately and remains evident in places even today. The tramways of Romania can be clearly divided into two categories — or, more strictly, one plus another with two sub-divisions.

This second group comprises those long-established systems in historic Romania Bucureşti, Brăila, Galaţi and Iaşi, together with the recently-closed line at Sibiu and those established formerly in Hungary Arad, Oradea, Timişoara.

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The other category comprises those systems inaugurated during the later years of the Communist administration of Nicolae Ceauşescu, namely Braşov, Constanţa, Cluj-Napoca, Ploieşti, Craiova, Reşiţa and Botoşani. It may be significant that Botoşani, the only one so far not to be subject to such reconstruction despite the poor state of its track and infrastructure, was the last to openwell after the fall of the Ceauşescu regime, and thus may not yet have reached the deteriorated state of others opened earlier.

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A long road to recovery Although economic conditions in Romania have improved considerably and the country was admitted to the European Union inyears of hardship and austerity dating back to the era of Communist rule dating piercing tattoos taken their toll. This has had a distinctive effect upon tramway operation in terms of rolling stock.

Before the Second World War, much rolling stock was imported, initially from the former Habsburg Empire, though tramcar construction did take place in Arad, Iaşi and possibly Timişoara. Later equipment was sourced from French manufacturers.

It was not until the early s that a truly indigenous tramcar industry was born, initially at Bucureşti in and from at the works of Electroputere in Craiova.

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This firm built around impressive bogie cars for operation in Bucureşti, Oradea and Timişoara, some of which were still in service — albeit heavily rebuilt — until the early lausanne online dating of this century.

At around the same time, the works in Bucureşti began building simple metal-bodied two-axle cars which were distributed across the country.

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Later, the works diversified and built a large series of three-section high-floor articulated cars for Bucureşti and, even more recently, articulated cars with low-floor sections for operation in the capital. Whilst cars of this type, first built inprovided a useful stop-gap, performance and reliability were poor and none survive in the passenger fleet of any Romanian tramway.

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During the last years of the Ceauşescu regime, when everything was in short supply and electricity was rationed, it was not unusual to witness even modern Timis tramcars operating with a slip-board in the front windscreen announcing that the car was suffering from a technical defect and was returning usually empty to the depot.

The need to replace life-expired rolling stock gave rise to a move to import redundant cars from German tramways, a process begun in early with the delivery of cars from Frankfurt and München to Bucureşti and from Bremen to Timişoara.

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This process was facilitated by a German tramway sympathiser, Günter H. Köhler, and culminated in cars from Germany West and East and Switzerland — and more recently Austria and the Netherlands — finding their way to most Romanian tramways. Even today, a great deal of former western European trams remain in operation and places such as Iaşi exhibit the impression of post-war Germany before the influx of low-floor cars.

Romanian engineers generally seem to have adapted well to the relative complexities of western European rolling stock and there is no doubt that these cars have been — and remain — the saviour of many systems. The tramways, as might be expected, are predominantly urban in nature, but routes serving areas of lower housing density survive in several places and some installations — most notably Craiova — retain lengthy rural sections serving major industrial plants.

How long these will survive in the changed economic climate where state subsidies for such industries lausanne online dating much reduced, leading to plant closures, is uncertain.

Bucureşti Our survey begins in the capital, Bucureşti Bucharestwith a current population of over two million inhabitants.

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An extensive programme of track reconstruction in recent years has seen large sections of the network closed for months or even years at a time, but the majority is now once again fully functioning.

A total of three-section and 49 two-section up dating whatsapp cars were built in the tramway works from onwards and services are now largely provided by these vehicles, all of which have been refurbished in recent years.

The majority of this work was done in-house, with some work contracted to the local Faur engineering company, but a few cars were rebuilt to a striking new design by the Electroputere works in Craiova.

The use of second-hand rolling stock from Frankfurt and München has now ceased though some of the latter remain as a reserve. These former three-axle cars were retrucked with locally-built bogies during their time lausanne online dating the capital and the greater wheel diameter gave them a totally changed appearance, with the lausanne online dating sitting higher above the track.

The oldest of these, Victoria, close to Gara de Nord, dates from electrification in The tramway works has constructed further batches 40 dating website recenzii new or modernised cars in recent years. First came a series of 11 two-section six-axle articulated cars, types V2S-T and V2A-T, known lausanne online dating Bucur, of which the first two were double-ended; these use components from withdrawn Tatra cars.

In the works rebuilt a total of 40 V2A cars as three-section vehicles with modernised bodywork as type V3ACH-PPC — these are largely to be found on route 1. Fifteen three-section articulated cars with low-floor centre sections, type Bucur LF,were built new between and This has been addressed in recent years with a massive new viaduct spanning these multiple tracks, with an elevated station for tramway passengers reached by stairways and lifts not always in working order.

The opening of this new link, which features a new track layout at ground level to serve Gara Basarab, has permitted the introduction of a new city circular route 1replacing various separate routes and most of former trunk route The enormous sweep of this circular route provides interchange with virtually all other radial lines — and also most trolleybus routes — and the nominal terminal point is at Şura Mare, south of the city centre. Various tram types operate upon it but it is also here that the largest number of new low-floor cars will be found.

Many will be familiar with the megalomaniac policies of the former dictator Ceauşescu and his wife, Elena, whose flights of fancy gave rise to some astonishing policy gyrations, from which the tramways were sadly not spared.

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An effect dating site real reality this construction was the severing, at short notice, of the through tram service across Piaţa Unirii; the current terminal loop at Piaţa Sf. Gheorghe is a legacy of this development. Double-ended cars remained a minority in the fleet after room was later found for a turning circle, yet have proved their worth more recently on temporary shuttle services during track reconstruction, most recently at Băneasa on route 5.

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The present fleet totals around cars with intensive services All cars are one-person-operated with tickets that must be purchased in advance.

Some kiosks also sell the official transport plan, a comprehensive guide to transport in the city that also acts as a street map. Ploieşti Around 60km 37 miles to the north lies the city of Ploieşti, capital of the Prahova district and in the heart of the Romanian oil field.

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Its current population is a little over and the standard gauge tramway here opened in Decemberthe last of several in that year and the penultimate new system of the Communist era. Like all the others built in that period, it was cheaply and quickly constructed and by April track deterioration had reached the point where the entire system had to be closed. At the time of writing, one route had reopened on 31 December but the other remains closed but is expected to re-open during spring The network lausanne online dating featured three routes, of which only the two above survive.

These start from a common terminus at the hospital Spitalul Judetean and branch after about 2km 1. At Armoniei on the Gara de Sud line can be found the fossilised remains of a triangular junction that once took trams due east to Uztel, serving the oil refinery district.

This route had been closed by and has not reopened.

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The first rolling stock comprised a mixture of motor and trailer bogie Timis sets together with some three-section V3A articulated cars of the Bucureşti type; one modernised example of the latter remains in the passenger fleet. The Timis cars had the usual short service life and replacements came in the form of Tatra KT4D articulated cars from Potsdam.

There is also a two-route trolleybus system, dating from They lausanne online dating been replaced by a fleet of FBW articulated vehicles from Genève and, more recently, the 25 surviving Neoplan low-floor articulated trolleybuses delivered to Lausanne in for which the Swiss authorities subsequently revoked the operating certificate.

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Their arrival in Ploieşti at the behest of the Mayor provoked a storm of lausanne online dating protest, with allegations that vehicles deemed unsuitable for operation in Switzerland owing to their propensity to spontaneous combustion were supposedly quite good enough for the citizens of Ploieşti.

This rumpus seems to have subsided and they now represent the normal trolleybus output on the system. Brăila A river port in Muntenia on the Danube delta with a population of aroundBrăila is one of two tramways in the eastern part of the country close to the Black Sea coast.

The unusual town layout features a central area of concentric crescent-shaped arteries, two of which are served by trams.

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In all, five routes are operated, broadly on a north-south axis, with one of the two depots situated beyond the northern terminal loop at Vidin. The second depot, which contains the maintenance facilities, is at Radu Negru, effectively at the limit of the urban development on the south side of the town; beyond this the relatively infrequent route 24 continues to the industrial lausanne online dating at Celhart Donaris, though in the summer season extra services operate as route 25 to a turning circle at Lacul Sărat for bathers visiting the nearby inland lake.

Fromthe majority of the tramway was closed for complete reconstruction and infor example, only a small section between Parc Monument and Lacul Sărat remained in operation. At the time of writing, line 22 was temporarily closed for partial reconstruction.

The rebuilding works have been nothing if not thorough and lausanne online dating have been completely reconstructed, with the roads excavated well below base course to provide solid foundations for the future. The result is track of exemplary quality, fully up to best western European standards, with consequently impressive riding characteristics.

The most recent section to be rebuilt, the western branch to Chercea used by route 23, reopened at the lausanne online dating of Others remain benoni dating outdoor storage at Vidin depot as a source of spare parts.

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Unlike their compatriots in Galaţi q. The Rotterdam and Wien cars provide the basic services on the two north-south trunk routes 21 and 22, linking Vidin and Radu Negru with alternative city centre routeings via Bulevardul Independenţei and Bulevardul Dorobanţilor respectively. These routes operate